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Guide to 4 of Ecuador Ecosystems: Forests (Mangrove, Dry, Cloud, Rain)

Ecuador enjoys a unique combination of location and geography which make it one of the most biologically diverse places on earth. In this post, you’ll learn about four Ecuador ecosystems, with a focus on tropical and marine ecosystems.

Learn about Ecuador Ecosystems: Forests (Mangrove, Dry, Cloud, Rain)

Ecuador is a tropical country, it’s on the equator, borders the pacific coast, and contains a portion of the Andes mountain range.

These unique characteristics (including the Galapagos Islands) make the biodiversity in this country among the highest in the world. And complex ecosystems abound.

Here are four forest ecosystems that we will be taking a look at in this post:

  1. Mangrove forest
  2. Tropical dry forest
  3. Tropical cloud forest
  4. Tropical rainforest


First we’ll talk about mangrove forests.

Mangrove Forests in Ecuador

Among the marine ecosystems along Ecuador’s pacific coast are mangrove forests. Mangroves can grow in salt water, their root systems create the perfect nursery for an abundance of marine life.

A mangrove forest is where one third of all marine species are born and raised. Some species spend their entire life in the mangroves. This unique ecosystem also provides shelter and food for many reptile, mammal, and bird species.

The mangroves provide shoreline protection as well, protecting the land from erosion and the destructive effects of storms. The intricate root system, branches, and foliage do an amazing job of absorbing the damaging effects of wind and waves. They can even reduce the force of a tsunami by up to 90%!

Ecuador ecosystems Mangrove forest

Did you know that mangrove forests can store up to five times more carbon dioxide than an equal area of rainforest? And that (according to National Geographic) Ecuador has some of the tallest mangrove trees in the world?

The mangrove forest is a very important ecosystem and it’s also one of the world most threatened. You can visit mangrove forests on the mainland and the Galapagos Islands.

Have you ever see the unique beauty of the mangroves? Come explore the mangroves with us.

Tropical Dry Forests in Ecuador

Have you heard of tropical dry forests? If not, that may be because despite being an important ecosystem, they don’t get much focus. You can find tropical dry forests along Ecuador’s pacific coast.

Tropical dry forests have nutrient rich soil and have plant life that is used to surviving extended periods of hot, dry weather.

These forests contain trees (mostly deciduous) that drop their leaves during drought periods, this allows them to conserve moisture. It also allows sunlight to reach the forest floor which leads to the growth of thick underbrush. The trees have thicker bark, smaller/thicker leaves, thorns, and deeper roots than trees found in the rainforest.

While tropical dry forests are not as biologically diverse as rainforests, they contain a wide range of species, many that are found no where else on the planet. They are home to plants and animals which have adapted to drought conditions. These forests are a valuable resource in our ever changing world climate.

Would you like to explore one of the worlds largest tropical dry forests with us? Contact us today.

Tropical Cloud Forests in Ecuador

The tropical cloud forest (montane forest) is one of my favorite Ecuador ecosystems. If you’ve been in a cloud forest and watched the clouds rise up over the mountains you know how amazing it looks. This is an unforgettable experience.


The uniqueness of the cloud forest isn’t limited to how the vegetation receives moisture; the trees look different, many are smaller and more gnarly than trees in other forests. You’ll also find a lot of mosses, ferns, bromeliads, and orchids clinging to the trees.

The forest floor is usually covered in a thick layer of moss because of the high moisture and low amounts of sunlight that reach it. These things all come together to create a dreamy, fairytale effect. Some tropical cloud forests in Ecuador even contain dwarf/elfin forests.

Many people visit cloud forests to go bird-watching. The cloud forests of Ecuador are famous for the number of bird species (including hummingbirds) found there. In Mindo alone, there are over 300 species! There are also a lot of endemic plant species found in this ecosystem.

We would love to show you the amazing cloud forests of Ecuador!

Tropical Rainforests in Ecuador

The rainforest in Ecuador is known as the most biodiverse place on earth!

Animals in the Amazon Rainforest in Ecuador

The rainforest ecosystem is hot and humid, it rains almost every day. The soil is nutrient poor because the high rainfall washes much of the organic matter (fallen flowers, berries, leaves…) away before it has a chance to decompose. But, the material that remains decomposes fast and provides nutrients for the amazing diversity of flora found in the rainforest.

The trees are tall, and the forest has 4 different layers:

  1. Emergent layer
  2. Canopy layer
  3. Understory layer
  4. Forest floor

There are over 1,100 species of trees in just 64 acres of Ecuadorian Amazon! In Yasuni alone there are 150 amphibian species (more than the U.S. and Canada combined), 121 species of reptiles, over 200 species of mammals, over 596 of birds, and 382 species of fish.

Of the Ecuador ecosystems, the rainforest is the most bio-diverse. Learn more about what it’s like to explore Amazon wildlife and biodiversity.

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Ecuador Ecosystems and You

Which ecosystems will you explore on your Ecuador trip? There’s so much to discover here, you’re sure to have wonderful experiences, and learn a lot as you travel around the country with us.

Have you visited any of the locations mentioned in this article? Please let us know what you enjoyed by joining us in the comments.

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